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24th International Conference on Neurosurgery and Neuroscience, will be organized around the theme “Unravel the intriguing conception on Neurosurgery and Neuroscience”

Neurosurgery 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Neurosurgery 2019

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The diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions, disease and disorders involving the central and peripheral nervous system are dealt by a branch of medicine called neurologyNeurology is basically concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system which consists of a complex, sophisticated system including its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system  that regulates and coordinates body activities. According to the University of California, San Francisco, the number of neurological disorder is heading more than 600, out of which most of the diseases treatment is still under limitations and research is still processing. The Global Burden of Disease study, along with the ongoing international collaborative project between WHO, the World Bank and the Harvard School of Public Health, has come up with the evidence that pinpoints neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health. According to the UN report on neurology, 27 February 2007, nearly one in six of the world’s population, up to 1 billion people, suffer from neurological disorders, from Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, strokes, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy to migraine, brain injuries. By analyzing the Global statistics, it is seen that fifty million people suffer from epilepsy, sixty-two million people suffer from cerebrovascular disease, three hundred and twenty-six million people suffer from migraine, and twenty-four million of the population suffer from Alzheimer disease and other dementias.

According to the WHO report, in terms of the population covered, only one quarter has access to more than one neurologist per 100 000 population, which means median number of neurologists per 100 000 population is also much lower for low-income countries (0.03) compared with high-income countries (2.96).

Clinical and surgical examination which deals with the neurological treatment of specific disorders related to  brainspinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system is termed as neurosurgery. Emergencies like intracranial hemorrhage and neuro trauma are basically involved in most of the neurosurgery. Intracerebral hemorrhage being the main cause of morbidity and mortality, results in affecting between 37 000 and 52 400 patients annually in the United States. By the year 2020, Global Interventional Neurology Market is expected to reach $2,370.4 Million, expected to have a CAGR of 8.4% from 2015 to 2020. Recent advances in surgical technology have meant that the focus of treatment for spinal conditions has progressed towards preservation of normal spinal motion and sparing of structures adjacent to problem areas. Some of the crucial types of neurosurgery includes vascular neurosurgery and endovascular neurosurgery, stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, and epilepsy surgerybrain tumor, oncological neurosurgery, skull base surgery, spinal neurosurgery, peripheral nerve surgery. 

Epilepsy may occur as a result of a number of other conditions including tumors, strokes, head trauma, previous infections of the central nervous system, genetic abnormalities, and as a result of Brain damage around the time of birth. Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the mid brain.

Skull base surgery is an exceptionally concentrated arrangement of surgical strategies performed to treat different conditions that influence the skull. Skull base surgery is done to remove both benign and cancerous tumours, abnormalities of brain and few vertebrae of the spinal column. Skull base surgery is performed either traditional way or by minimally invasive way. Brain damage consists 35% of total injuries all over the world. Cost burden is €400 billion every year in Europe.

According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on neurology shows that neurological disorders, ranging from epilepsy to Alzheimer disease, from stroke to headache, affect up to one billion people worldwide. An estimated 6.8 million people die every year as a result of neurological disorders. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system. . The disorders include diseases concerned with the central and peripheral nervous system, such as brainspinal cord, cranial nerves, the autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction and muscles. As the global population ages, the impact of neurological disorders will be felt both in developed and developing countries, reaching a significant proportion in countries with a growing percentage of the population over 65 years.

Chronic pain related with tissue injury is termed as neuropathic pain. Neurosurgery plays a huge impact on such neuropathic pain. The impact of nerve fiber injury includes a change in nerve function both at the site of injury and areas around the injury. Nerve pressure or nerve damage after surgery or trauma along with viral infections, cancer, and even vascular malformations, alcoholism, neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and metabolic conditions such as diabetes are the common cause of neuropathic pain. Peripheral neuropathic pain, central neuropathic pain, or mixed (peripheral and central) neuropathic pains are the three basic mechanism of neuropathic pain.

Statistics says that 7- 8% of the European population is affected, out of which 5% of patients are severely traumatized. Anti-epileptics, Antidepressants, Opioids, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are the few treatment processes for neuropathic pain.

Neuropharmacology is the study of drugs that affect cellular functions in the neural mechanisms and nervous system, through which they influence behavior. Molecular neuropharmacology involve the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions with the overall motive of developing new drugs that have beneficial effects on nervous system .This session also includes to group think the alteration in psychiatric diseases, neuromodulation and the recent Drug development in the field of Neuro-immunological disorders.

 
Neuropathology consists largely of examination of biopsy tissue from the brain and spinal cord to aid in diagnosis of disease. It is an important aspect for neurosurgery.  The subject often confused with neuropathy deals with laboratory analysis of tissue samples for personalized diagnosis or forensic investigations.
 
Neurological disorder pathogenesis including related neuronal and glial pathology, the Golgi apparatus, RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression, RNA stability, RNA splicing, signal transduction, and the cytoskeleton may come under the part of neuropathology. Research subjects on neurology like developmental neurobiology, developmental neuropathology and biology of pediatric and adult brain tumors are recent additional.

Discectomy or Micro discectomyLaminectomy, and Laminotomy are the common surgical procedure.

Spinal surgery market on neurology has a high chance of reaching $6.9 billion by 2020. Global spinal surgery devices market is expected to reach $14.8 billion by 2017, with an estimated yearly growth rate of 5.1% in the next five years and in Europe it is expected to reach $2,993.6 million by 2019. Although spinal fusions still hold the largest market share, disc replacements are pushing forward in popularity as they become more available among spine practices. The Millennium Research Group reported that the global spinal non-fusion market would surpass $1.6 billion by 2022, nearly tripling in size from just a few years ago.

 

Neuroanesthesia is one of the specialties under neurosurgery that have contributed tremendously over the years to neuroscience yet it remained non-accredited and supported. Neuroanesthetic management is different from general anesthesia because it can have a major effect on the brain and spinal cord through the control of blood flow, blood pressure and energy consumption of these organs. Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring (SEP Monitoring) and Motor Evoked Potential Monitoring (MEP monitoring) are used as one of the important technique for treatment in spinal cord and brain surgeries.

In general, there is a less than a one percent chance of developing a malignant CNS or brain tumor over the course of one's lifetime. The risk increases once the age increases. Among people under the age of 20, 4.5 per 100,000 persons will be diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor. This very rate rises to 57 per 100,000 persons after age 75. Brain tumors are the second-leading cause of death due to cancer for children and teens under age 20, females under 20 years of age, males under 40 years of age.

Child neurology refers to a branch of medicine that deals with the management and diagnosis of neurological conditions in neonates, children, infants and adolescents. The discipline of child neurology encompasses diseases and disorders of the brain, peripheral nervous system, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups. If child has problems that involve the nervous system, paediatric neurologist has the specialist knowledge to assess, diagnose, training and treat the child. The conditions deal with by paediatric neurologist's vary considerably, from relatively disorders such as cerebral palsy or migraine through to more complex and rare conditions such as  neurodegenerative disorders or metabolic disease.

 

Disorder related to child neurology

  • Pediatric Neurology
  • Childhood Stroke
  • Children with neurological disease
  • Chromosomopathy
  • Congenital malformation
  • Mitochondrial disease
  • Perinatal and Peripheral Neuropathy

The central nervous system is a highly specialized network which organizes interactions dealing with two major parts which are brain and spinal cord. The CNS is vulnerable to various disorders. Trauma, Infections, Degeneration, Structural defects, Tumors, Blood flow disruption, Autoimmune disorders etc., are the reasons which hinders central nervous system. Statistics reveals that approximately 22 million patients suffer from various forms of central nervous system disorder. According to a new United Nations report, 6.8 million people die out of the maladies each year. 

 

Catheters and radiology are used in endovascular neurosurgery to diagnose diseases of the central nervous system. Endovascular neurosurgery generally uses tools that pass through the blood vessels to diagnose and treat diseases and conditions which don’t uses open surgery.
 
Thrombolytic therapy, Endovascular coiling, minimally invasive spine surgery, Cerebral angiography Carotid artery angioplasty/stenting are certain procedures of endovascular neurosurgery. In order to diagnose a vascular disease, Cerebral or Spinal Angiography – D.S.A. (Digital Subtraction Angiography) is performed which is considered as a gold standard investigation.
 

Novel therapeutics basically deals with the Novel Treatment strategies like Therapeutic Brain stimulation (electric and magnetic), Tau-Based Treatment Strategies in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Anti-amyloid therapy, Comprehensive treatment, Therapeutic dilemmas in multiple sclerosis and Future research directions in Brain disorders. Neurosurgery is such a significant topic that needs to be researched more for further cure and solution.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a nondegenerative, noncongenital affront to the brain from an outer mechanical power, potentially prompting perpetual or impermanent disability of psychological, physical, and psychosocial capacities with a related decreased or modified condition of cognizance. Frequently, the term brain injury is utilized synonymously with head damage, which may not be connected with neurological deficiencies. The definition additionally has been dangerous with varieties in consideration criteria. In case of diffuse axonal injury brain neurons which communicate with each other are injured and loss the ability to communicate and integrate with each other. In United States 1.4 million people endure a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year among which around 50,000 die, 235,000 are hospitalized. Head injury is very common among young adults and Trauma is the leading cause of death in people under 40.